in

These are the Top Publishing Companies and Platforms Headquartered in Japan (2021)

This article showcases our top picks for the best Japan based Publishing companies. These startups and companies operate a variety of Publishing solutions. We tried to pick companies across the size spectrum from cutting edge startups to established brands. Regardless, they are all exceptional startups and companies well worth a follow.

Click here to skip to the list of companies.

We selected these startups for exceptional performance in one of these categories:

  • Innovation
    • Innovative ideas
    • Innovative route to market
    • Innovative product
  • Growth
    • Exceptional growth
    • Exceptional growth strategy
  • Management
  • Societal impact

Top Japan Publishing Companies

Data sourced from Crunchbase and SemRush.

Nexon

Nexon

Crunchbase | Website | Twitter | Facebook | Linkedin

Nexon is an entertainment software developing company that creates free-to-play online games. Nexon is a pioneer in the world of interactive entertainment software.

They introduced the world to the first graphic MMORPG, The Kingdom of the Winds, back in 1995. Since then, they’ve become the industry leader in massively multiplayer online games, continuing to redefine the genre with each of their innovative titles..

Kakao Japan

Kakao Japan

Crunchbase | Website | Twitter | Facebook | Linkedin

Kakao Japan is a free smartphone calling and messenger application. Kakao Japan is a Japanese corporation of Kakao Corp., a Korean company known for its message app KakaoTalk.

Kakao Japan’s vision it so provide the value of fun to customers’ daily lives, delivering smiles to customers, and impressing their hearts.. .

Spectee

Spectee

Crunchbase | Website | Twitter | Facebook | Linkedin

Spectee is a online news agency that specializes in curating and publishing real-time social media UGC video. By using artificial intelligence patented by Spectee, It is able to reduce the time taken to analyze and sort social media news content, giving you faster access to the very latest UGC video.

Expect video covering both Japanese and worldwide news from accidents and disasters to lifestyle and entertainment.​ it newsroom is verifying and acquiring licenses of those contents for broadcasters and publishers.. .

INBOUND TECHNOLOGY

INBOUND TECHNOLOGY

Crunchbase | Website | Twitter | Facebook | Linkedin

INBOUND TECHNOLOGY is a Japanese society faces many challenges due to the declining birthrate and aging population.

Lovegraph

Lovegraph

Crunchbase | Website | Twitter | Facebook | Linkedin

Lovegraph (Love graph), photographer to accompany a couple of their dating, is a service that leaves two people talking to are wearing and natural smile in the photo. Photos of the natural appearance of two people at a time when you do not leave the only two people of memories in its own birds and photo booth, which takes you decorate more memories.

Anniversary is not also recommended to surprise wedding movies and lover as well. Couples like, of course, they also offer a request from your couple-like and family-like..

PoliPoli

PoliPoli

Crunchbase | Website | Twitter | Facebook | Linkedin

PoliPoli is a next-generation politics co-creation platform where you can participate like a game.

Happy Elements Japan

Happy Elements Japan

Crunchbase | Website | Twitter | Facebook | Linkedin

Happy Elements is focused on the development of social, web, and mobile games as well as publishing services.

Listeners

Listeners

Crunchbase | Website | Twitter | Facebook | Linkedin

Listeners is a Publishing and sales of books, magazines and digital media company.

CyberStep

CyberStep

Crunchbase | Website | Twitter | Facebook | Linkedin

Since its inception, cyber step, the belief that “afloat entertainment for fun around the world”, we are working to business development. Aim is, mechanisms and content that people around the world, the difference of language, enjoy to overcome the physical distance.

We are convinced that it is a tool that what network game to allow for it, we are working on the development by utilizing the latest network technology, the 3D technology.. .

3rdKind

3rdKind

Crunchbase | Website | Twitter | Facebook | Linkedin

3rdKind is a Japanese smartphone game publisher.

Brangista

Brangista

Crunchbase | Website | Twitter | Facebook | Linkedin

Brangista is an e-magazine publishing company that provides web promotion support business and more. The digital magazines are free and anyone can read it without subscribing or downloading.

The company also provides solution services such as EC Tencho, for companies operating e-commerce stores. Brangista was established in November 2000 and is headquartered in Tokyo, Japan..

DORAEVER

DORAEVER

Crunchbase | Website | Twitter | Facebook | Linkedin

DORAEVER specializes in the editing and publishing of job information magazine.

The Bullion Desk

The Bullion Desk

Crunchbase | Website | Twitter | Facebook | Linkedin

The Bullion Desk is a free website whose mission is to provide first-time and regular visitors alike with live gold, silver, platinum and palladium spot prices, together with informative charts and their highly regarded precious metals news and research. The Bullion Desk is owned and operated by FastMarkets Ltd, whose in-house team of specialist journalists and analysts report on the metals markets around the clock.

They are passionate about metals and proud of their editorial independence – they tell it as they see it. If you need access to more advanced information on precious metals, they sell a professional version of The Bullion Desk (contact us here to request a free trial).

This provides access to all of their precious metals news and analysis and their advanced market data service, all delivered on their highly regarded and fully configurable subscriber platform. Their full range of editorial content and market data, covering non-ferrous, precious and minor metals, is available to subscribers of their FastMarkets Professional product.

FastMarkets provides vital market intelligence to companies in more than 80 countries worldwide.. .

Toppan Printing

Toppan Printing

Crunchbase | Website | Twitter | Facebook | Linkedin

Toppan Printing Co., Ltd. provides commercial printing and related services worldwide.

It operates in three segments: Information & Networks, Living Environment, and Electronics. The Information & Networks segment provides commercial printing services for posters, catalogs, pamphlets, flyers, calendars, pop materials, and gifts, as well as offers design and event services, sales promotion planning, multimedia related activities, and database and network system design and operation services; and publications printing services magazines and books, as well as CDROMs, DVDs, and other electronic publications.

It also offers securities, such as stocks, bonds, gift certificates, and product coupons; cards comprising magnetic cards and prepaid cards; and develops and designs IC card systems, IC tag systems, and security management systems. This segment supplies various business form services, including direct mail, integrated slips, data print services, cards, envelopes, catalogs, and sales and maintenance of equipment.

The Living Environment segment offers a range of packaging services, such as packaging planning, development, and production; development and production of packaging materials; design and production of packaging related system equipment; filling services; and packaging consulting. It also provides decorative paper/film, wallpaper, flooring materials, interior materials, and exterior materials.

The Electronics segment offers display products that include color filters for LCDs, shadowmasks, screens for micro-display rear projection TVs, and functional films; and semiconductor products comprising photomasks, leadframes, printed wiring boards, substrates for semiconductor packages, design of printed wiring boards, LSI circuits, printed wiring, and performance assessment software. The company has a strategic alliance with AU Optronics Corp.

Toppan Printing was founded in 1900 and is headquartered in Tokyo, Japan.. .

Kodansha

Kodansha

Crunchbase | Website | Twitter | Facebook | Linkedin

Kodansha is the largest publisher in Japan and produces the manga magazines Nakayoshi, Afternoon, Evening, and Weekly Shonen Magazine, as well as more literary magazines such as Gunzō, Shūkan Gendai, and the Japanese dictionary Nihongo Daijiten. The company has its headquarters in Bunkyō, Tokyo.

The Noma family—relatives of the founder—continues to own Kodansha Source: [Wikipedia] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kodansha). .

DMM GAMES

DMM GAMES

Crunchbase | Website | Twitter | Facebook | Linkedin

DMM GAMES is a platform that delivers games

Konami Digital Entertainment

Konami Digital Entertainment

Crunchbase | Website | Twitter | Facebook | Linkedin

Konami Digital Entertainment develops, manufactures, and publishes electronic entertainment products. The company offers video games, games software products, and toy and hobby related products as well as mobile games, wallpapers, and ring tones.

Its popular titles include METAL GEAR SOLID, Silent Hill, DanceDanceRevolution, and Castlevania, among other top sellers. Konami Digital Entertainment was founded in 1982 and is based in El Segundo, California with an additional office in Redwood City, California.

Currently, it operates as a subsidiary of Konami Corp.. .

Nikkei Asian Review

Nikkei Asian Review

Crunchbase | Website | Twitter | Facebook | Linkedin

Nikkei Asian Review is an English language publication that brings insights about business, finance, economic, and political news in Asia. It is a new media reporting platform that publishes untold stories from across Asia to the world.

This business journal was launched in November, 2013. Nikkei Asian Review has an extensive network of contributors including academics and government leaders, and also has journalists placed across Asia enabling them to offer comprehensive business news articles..

Media Do

Media Do

Crunchbase | Website | Twitter | Facebook | Linkedin

Media Do is an online platform that stores and distributes ebook content on behalf of book publishers.

Kadokawa Corporation

Kadokawa Corporation

Crunchbase | Website | Twitter | Facebook | Linkedin

Kadokawa Co is a publishing & media firm dealing with publishing, film, operation of network entertainment service & other services.

HAIR

HAIR

Crunchbase | Website | Twitter | Facebook | Linkedin

personalized trends, hair stylists, and items

The Japan Times

The Japan Times

Crunchbase | Website | Twitter | Facebook | Linkedin

The Japan Times is the oldest and the only independent English language newspaper in Japan. The Japan Times was launched by Motosada Zumoto on March 22, 1897.

The newspaper is published by The Japan Times, Ltd., a subsidiary of Nifco, a leading manufacturer of plastic fasteners for the automotive and home design industries. The Japan Times features content including news articles on domestic, world news, and business news; opinions; feature articles on life and style, community, media, technology, food and drink, travel, environment, education, and cartoons; entertainment news; and sports news..

TV Asahi

TV Asahi

Crunchbase | Website | Twitter | Facebook | Linkedin

TV Asahi Holdings Corporation is a Japanese major television network. The company also owns All-Nippon News Network.

Individual Company Inc

Individual Company Inc

Crunchbase | Website | Twitter | Facebook | Linkedin

Individual.com provides news services. They collects articles from various news services, sorts them by company and topic, and sends a daily news email to each user.

It also creates a personal news homepage for each user and updates it throughout the day.. .

The Diplomat Magazine

The Diplomat Magazine

Crunchbase | Website | Twitter | Facebook | Linkedin

The Diplomat is the premier international current-affairs magazine for the Asia-Pacific region.

Idea Factory

Idea Factory

Crunchbase | Website | Twitter | Facebook | Linkedin

Idea Factory is a Japanese video game developer and publisher.

OTOBANK

OTOBANK

Crunchbase | Website | Twitter | Facebook | Linkedin

OTOBANK is a publishing production company.

VOYAGER

VOYAGER

Crunchbase | Website | Twitter | Facebook | Linkedin

VOYAGER develops digital publishing system and digital marketing tools.

Mercury

Mercury

Crunchbase | Website | Twitter | Facebook | Linkedin

Mercury provides web design, system development, video and printed matter production services.

BOOK WALKER

BOOK WALKER

Crunchbase | Website | Twitter | Facebook | Linkedin

BOOK WALKER is an electronic bookstore that provides popular works from various publishers. It offers different genres which include comics, literary arts, light novels, utility books, game-related magazines, and more.

BOOK WALKER can be accessed in an Android device, iOS device, and PC. The company was founded in 2005..

Timeout

Timeout

Crunchbase | Website | Twitter | Facebook | Linkedin

Timeout is a publishing company

Helte

Helte

Crunchbase | Website | Twitter | Facebook | Linkedin

Light up the world

Lifebear

Lifebear

Crunchbase | Website | Twitter | Facebook | Linkedin

Japan’s largest notebook app with calendar, todo, notebook and diary

The Okinawa Times

The Okinawa Times

Crunchbase | Website | Twitter | Facebook | Linkedin

The Okinawa Times is a provider of newspapers for news, gourmet foods, gifts, and event information. Its products are Okinawa Times, Nikkan Sports Okinawa Regional Edition, Cultural Business / Publishing Business.

The 1949-founded company is headquartered in Naha, Okinawa.. .

Uni Create

Uni Create

Crunchbase | Website | Twitter | Facebook | Linkedin

Uni Create is a xR content production IT venture.

Ei-Publishing

Ei-Publishing

Crunchbase | Website | Twitter | Facebook | Linkedin

Ei-Publishing is engages in Publishing and sales of magazines and books, original books, web pages, video, design.

Playism

Playism

Crunchbase | Website | Twitter | Facebook | Linkedin

The worldwide indie publisher specializing in localization, PC & console publishing.

Senken Shimbun

Senken Shimbun

Crunchbase | Website | Twitter | Facebook | Linkedin

Senken Shimbun is a Japanese fashion newspaper.

Beeworks

Beeworks

Crunchbase | Website | Twitter | Facebook | Linkedin

Beeworks focuses on publishing services, advertising and sales promotion, web production, and game development.

Square Enix Group

Square Enix Group

Crunchbase | Website | Twitter | Facebook | Linkedin

Square Enix Group publishes, distributes, and licenses entertainment content around the world.

H2 Interactive, Inc.

H2 Interactive, Inc.

Crunchbase | Website | Twitter | Facebook | Linkedin

a video game publishing start-up

Toyo Keizai

Toyo Keizai

Crunchbase | Website | Twitter | Facebook | Linkedin

Toyo Keizai is a leader in business publishing and a trusted commentator on Japanese politics and economics.

ZigZaGame

ZigZaGame

Crunchbase | Website | Twitter | Facebook | Linkedin

Planning, development and management of smartphone games

AWA Japan

AWA Japan

Crunchbase | Website | Twitter | Facebook | Linkedin

AWA is a Music Distribution platform

Nippon Communications Foundation

Nippon Communications Foundation

Crunchbase | Website | Twitter | Facebook | Linkedin

Nippon.com is produced by the Nippon Communications Foundation with support from the Nippon Foundation. The Nippon Communications Foundation promotes understanding of Japan through web-based publishing and other activities, with the goal of conveying information on Japanese politics, economics, society, and culture to a broad spectrum of readers.

They publish Nippon.com in seven languages: Japanese, English, Chinese (both simplified and traditional characters), French, Spanish, Arabic, and Russian—all six official languages of the United Nations plus Japanese. In this way They are working to create an Internet channel that can reach more than 6 billion readers worldwide..

NTT DATA Global Solutions

NTT DATA Global Solutions

Crunchbase | Website | Twitter | Facebook | Linkedin

NTT DATA Global Solutions is a globalization demands of systems due to global expansion of Japanese company

Nikkei BPnet

Nikkei BPnet

Crunchbase | Website | Twitter | Facebook | Linkedin

Nikkei BPnet is a comprehensive website that offers information for business professionals. It provides analysis and news covering all areas of business, finance, and government.

Nikkei BPnet delivers insightful up-to-date news from a business viewpoint in a variety of fields. It also provides analytics and perspectives on lifestyle-related content such as the latest trends in cars, housing, money as well as topics such as entertainment, hit products, and fashion..

Enish

Enish

Crunchbase | Website | Twitter | Facebook | Linkedin

enish is a mobile game development and publishing company based in Tokyo, Japan.

KAMOMEYA

KAMOMEYA

Crunchbase | Website | Twitter | Facebook | Linkedin

Kamomeya is an island and live because of inconvenience in transportation and transportation.

Impress Group

Impress Group

Crunchbase | Website | Twitter | Facebook | Linkedin

Impress Holdings is engaged in the media business in Japan.

JMA Management Center

JMA Management Center

Crunchbase | Website | Twitter | Facebook | Linkedin

JMA Management Center engages in human resources development, planners, calendars, and publishing businesses.

Uniworld

Uniworld

Crunchbase | Website | Twitter | Facebook | Linkedin

Uniworld is an on-demand printing and publishing house.

Ashisuto

Ashisuto

Crunchbase | Website | Twitter | Facebook | Linkedin

Ashisuto is a Japanese company that has been publishing and distributing computer software packages.

SPORTS NIPPON NEWSPAPERS

SPORTS NIPPON NEWSPAPERS

Crunchbase | Website | Twitter | Facebook | Linkedin

SPORTS NIPPON NEWSPAPERS is a sports newspaper in Japan.

KENTSU SHIMBUNSHA

KENTSU SHIMBUNSHA

Crunchbase | Website | Twitter | Facebook | Linkedin

KENTSU SHIMBUNSHA publishes news related to the construction industry.

CHUCO Co., Ltd.

CHUCO Co., Ltd.

Crunchbase | Website | Twitter | Facebook | Linkedin

CHUCO CO., LTD. is mainly engaged in the operation of media business and advertising sales promotion (SP) business.

The Company operates in two business segments. The Media segment is engaged in the publication of free living information magazines, the development, sale and operation of living information portal Website, the planning and operation of trainings, lectures, concerts, symposiums and seminars, the operation of various public relations (PR) and Internet shopping businesses..

IndieSquare

IndieSquare

Crunchbase | Website | Twitter | Facebook | Linkedin

IndieSquare is a publishing company for APIs and SDKs for developers.

Ubisoft Japan

Ubisoft Japan

Crunchbase | Website | Twitter | Facebook | Linkedin

Ubisoft Japan provides game software publishing and licensing services.

K.Sense

K.Sense

Crunchbase | Website | Twitter | Facebook | Linkedin

K.Sense is a newspaper and magazine publishing company.

X-Knowledge

X-Knowledge

Crunchbase | Website | Twitter | Facebook | Linkedin

X-Knowledge is a publisher of magazines, mooks and books that provides information on architecture, design, computers and their peripherals.

Hearst Digital Japan

Hearst Digital Japan

Crunchbase | Website | Twitter | Facebook | Linkedin

“Hearst Digital Japan Co., Ltd.” accelerates the growth of the digital business

Phoenixx

Phoenixx

Crunchbase | Website | Twitter | Facebook | Linkedin

Phoenixx is a video game development company that provides video games and publishing services.

Tokuma Shoten

Tokuma Shoten

Crunchbase | Website | Twitter | Facebook | Linkedin

Tokuma Shoten is a publisher company engages in the publishing of music, video game, movies, anime, magazines, manga and books.

ADSystem

ADSystem

Crunchbase | Website | Twitter | Facebook | Linkedin

ADSystem specializes in developing software products for the advertising and publishing sectors.

Chiikishinbunsha Co Ltd

Chiikishinbunsha Co Ltd

Crunchbase | Website | Twitter | Facebook | Linkedin

Chiikishinbunsha is a newspaper company. The company publishes free local newspaper.

The Nikkan Kogyo Shimbun

The Nikkan Kogyo Shimbun

Crunchbase | Website | Twitter | Facebook | Linkedin

publish science and engineering books, business books and technical magazines with high specialty.

Peacemind

Peacemind

Crunchbase | Website | Twitter | Facebook | Linkedin

Peacemind is an Implementation of stress check, organizational analysis, organization consulting company.

SANSPO

SANSPO

Crunchbase | Website | Twitter | Facebook | Linkedin

SANSPO is an online platform, delivering news related to sports, entertainment, and much more.

Brain

Brain

Crunchbase | Website | Twitter | Facebook | Linkedin

Brain specializes in blockchain consulting, publishing, and startup support businesses.

Galaxy

Galaxy

Crunchbase | Website | Twitter | Facebook | Linkedin

Galaxy is a publishing and media company.

CAMELOVE

CAMELOVE

Crunchbase | Website | Twitter | Facebook | Linkedin

Cameloveis a Camera equipment rental subscription service.

THETA Japan

THETA Japan

Crunchbase | Website | Twitter | Facebook | Linkedin

THETA is a group of professionals specialized in planning, shooting, and editing live-action VR videos.

Indigames

Indigames

Crunchbase | Website | Twitter | Facebook | Linkedin

Indigames specializes in game publishing and game development services.

oricon ME

oricon ME

Crunchbase | Website | Twitter | Facebook | Linkedin

oricon news is a Production and operation music distribution service.

gamegate Japan

gamegate Japan

Crunchbase | Website | Twitter | Facebook | Linkedin

Gamegate is a gameing App Company

Japan Publication Trading

Japan Publication Trading

Crunchbase | Website | Twitter | Facebook | Linkedin

Japan Publication Trading Co is a wholesale & retail publication company that deals in exporting, importing and sale of books & magazines.

DIAMOND

DIAMOND

Crunchbase | Website | Twitter | Facebook | Linkedin

DIAMOND publishes and sales magazines, books and digital media.

Womanlife

Womanlife

Crunchbase | Website | Twitter | Facebook | Linkedin

Womanlife is a broadcasting, media, and news company.

The Ryukyu Shimpo

The Ryukyu Shimpo

Crunchbase | Website | Twitter | Facebook | Linkedin

Newspaper in Okinawa.

The Home Living

The Home Living

Crunchbase | Website | Twitter | Facebook | Linkedin

The Home Living is a newspaper for furniture and home furnishing.

Beyond Perspective

Beyond Perspective

Crunchbase | Website | Twitter | Facebook | Linkedin

Beyond Perspective specializes in Web system development with Ruby on Rails and PHP.

SB Creative

SB Creative

Crunchbase | Website | Twitter | Facebook | Linkedin

SB Creative Corp. is a Japanese publishing company and a subsidiary of the SoftBank telecommunications company.

It was founded in 1999 and is headquartered in Tokyo, Japan.. .

TOKYO KEIZAI NEWS

TOKYO KEIZAI NEWS

Crunchbase | Website | Twitter | Facebook | Linkedin

TOKYO KEIZAI NEWS is publishing business news on the web.

Sendenkaigi

Sendenkaigi

Crunchbase | Website | Twitter | Facebook | Linkedin

Sendenkaigi is a marketing communications magazine and book publishing company.

AIC

AIC

Crunchbase | Website | Twitter | Facebook | Linkedin

AIC specializes in the publishing business, content business and ICT solution business.

Freebal Entertainment

Freebal Entertainment

Crunchbase | Website | Twitter | Facebook | Linkedin

Marketplace and ecosystem: Matching business, import/export and business development with assets and projects in entertainment industry.

EXASOL

EXASOL

Crunchbase | Website | Twitter | Facebook | Linkedin

EXASOL engages in the information and communication services business.

Brainy

Brainy

Crunchbase | Website | Twitter | Facebook | Linkedin

Brainy is a publisher trading desk that offers unique solutions to customers. The company provides services such as blending, pricing, tuning, and brand safety.

Brainy was established in March 2017 and is headquartered in Tokyo, Japan.. .

Nansei

Nansei

Crunchbase | Website | Twitter | Facebook | Linkedin

Nansei provides digitization, scanning, and drone services.

IDEA FACTORY JAPAN

IDEA FACTORY JAPAN

Crunchbase | Website | Twitter | Facebook | Linkedin

IDEA FACTORY JAPAN is a video game development and publishing company.

Kill Time Communication Publishing

Kill Time Communication Publishing

Crunchbase | Website | Twitter | Facebook | Linkedin

Kill Time Communication Publishing is a Japanese science fiction and fantasy seinen manga magazine publisher.

KOTSU SHIMBUNSHA

KOTSU SHIMBUNSHA

Crunchbase | Website | Twitter | Facebook | Linkedin

KOTSU SHIMBUNSHA provides publishing and advertising services.

MAAR-SHA

MAAR-SHA

Crunchbase | Website | Twitter | Facebook | Linkedin

MAAR-SHA manufactures and sells art, design, personal computer books.

Bunkasha

Bunkasha

Crunchbase | Website | Twitter | Facebook | Linkedin

Bunkasha is a publishing company specialized in comics, magazines and books.

Amass

Amass

Crunchbase | Website | Twitter | Facebook | Linkedin

Based on the music, animation, film, special effects, etc. also incorporates’s news site.

POWER PLAY MUSIC

POWER PLAY MUSIC

Crunchbase | Website | Twitter | Facebook | Linkedin

POWER PLAY MUSIC is a media and entertainment company.

Scinex

Scinex

Crunchbase | Website | Twitter | Facebook | Linkedin

Scinex is a publishing and logistics services company.

ACCESSPORT

ACCESSPORT

Crunchbase | Website | Twitter | Facebook | Linkedin

ACCESSPORT is a game publishing and content servicing business.

Nihon Bungeisha

Nihon Bungeisha

Crunchbase | Website | Twitter | Facebook | Linkedin

Nihonbungeisha publishes and sells books and magazines.

KADOKAWA DWANGO

KADOKAWA DWANGO

Crunchbase | Website | Twitter | Facebook | Linkedin

Kadokawa is a perform publishing business, video business, copyright business, digital content business, network entertainment service

Kitayama & Company

Kitayama & Company

Crunchbase | Website | Twitter | Facebook | Linkedin

Kitayama & Company engages in graphic design, product design, publising and transmission services.

This article was written by James Jackson from Boove. The editor for this article was Tess Page. If your company is featured in this article and you want to have amendments made please contact us on: [email protected].

Alternatively you may write to us at: Boove/Fupping Ltd, First Floor, 61-63 Rochester Pl, London NW1 9JU.

These are the Top Publishing Companies and Platforms Headquartered in China (2021)

These are the Top Publishing Companies and Platforms Headquartered in The Netherlands (2021)